The carriage-body consists of two steel brackets forming cheeks and trail. They are reinforced by angle-steel and connected by transoms. The axle is secured in beds riveted to the brackets, and is arranged to be readily dismounted when required. The elevating-gear consists of a simple screw working in a stout steel transom, and supports the breech of the gun; the preponderance is sufficient to insure stability. The sponge and rod are secured to the right side of the trail by suitable attachments. A pole is provided for draught when easy country is encountered, and provision is made for attaching it to the lunette.
The Mechanism.—(b) breech-block; loading-hole; (s) stop-bolt; spring washer; (r) stop-bolt guide; (e) extractor; (h) extractor-hook; (a k) extractor-guide; (c) locking-screw; locking-screw shaft; locking-screw pin; (l) handle; stop; stop keep-screw.
Action of the mechanism
The gun having been fired, the handle is turned to the rear, unlocking the block and starting it in the mortise. Drawing the handle smartly to the right, the breech is opened, the extractor, actuated by the movement of the block, commences to move very slowly back with a powerful leverage, starting the cartridge-case from its seat. When the breech-block has moved sufficiently to unmask the bore, the change of direction in the extractor-guide causes the extractor to make a quick movement to the rear, throwing the cartridge clear of the gun.
A new charge being inserted, it is pushed home until the head of the cartridge brings up against the extractor. The breech is now closed by pushing it smartly to the left, and is locked by turning the handle to the front. A primer may now be inserted in the vent, and the gun is ready for firing.
Total length 3.83 feet
Length of bore 3.43 feet
Travel of projectile 3.10 feet
Calibre 1.65 inches
Weight 121 pounds
Twist of rifling, uniform 1 in 29.83 cals.
Muzzle-velocity 1298 ft.-sec.
Maximum range 3500 yards
12 Inch Disappearing - raised
12 inch barbette - non-disappearing
United States Carriage model of 1896
United States Carriage model of 1896
3 inch Rapid Fire Gun
5 inch rapid fire
3 inch R.F. Gun
4.7 inch 120 mm q.f. Gun on centre pivot pedestal mounting
4.7 inch Q.F. (Pedestal Mount.)
5 inch Rapid-fire gun (Pedestal Mount.)
5 Inch R.F. gun (showing breech mechanism)
4.7 inch. Breech closing and firing gear
12 Inch Disappearing
Amongst the class of modern cannon, one of the most powerful is Krupp's seventy-one-ton gun. This, like all others of his make, is a breech-loader. Its dimensions are—length, thirty-two feet nine inches; diameter at breech end, five feet six inches; length of bore, twenty-eight feet seven inches; diameter of bore, 15.75 inches; diameter of powder-chamber, 17.32 inches. The internal tube is of two parts, exactly joined; and over this are four cylinders, shrunk on, and a ring round the breech. Its rifling has a uniform twist of one in forty-five. It cannot possibly be fired until the breech is perfectly closed. Its maximum charge is four hundred and eighty-five pounds of powder, and a chilled iron shell of seventeen hundred and eight pounds.
At Dover there is a culverine, presented to Queen Elizabeth, by the States General of Holland, and called Queen Elizabeth’s Pocket-pistol. It is 24 feet long, diameter of bore 4 1⁄2 inches, weight of shot 12lbs.; it was manufactured in 1544, and is mounted on an ornamented iron carriage made in 1827, at the Royal Carriage Department, Woolwich Arsenal.
The only real use of these eprouvettes is to check and verify the uniformity of a current manufacture of powder, where a certain course of operations is intended to be regularly pursued, and where the strength, tested by means of any instrument, should therefore be uniform.
One of the largest cannon now existing is a brass one at Bejapoor, called “Moolik-i-Meidan,” or “The Lord of the Plain.” It was cast in commemoration of the capture of that place by the Emperor Alum Geer, in 1685. Its length is 14ft. 1in., diameter about 5ft. 8in., diameter of bore, 2ft. 4in., interior length of bore, 10ft.; length of chamber unknown; shape of gun nearly “cylindrical;” description of shot, stone. An iron shot for this gun, of proper size, would weigh 1600lbs. It is now lying in a dilapidated circular bastion on the left of the principal gateway of the city. The trunnions are broken off, and there is a ring on each side of it, as well as two Persian inscriptions on the top. It is placed on three heavy beams of wood, packed round with large stones. A number of stone shot, of 2ft. 2in. in diameter, are scattered about. This gun is said to be the heaviest piece of ordnance in the world. It weighs about forty-two tons.
Sighting through the pantel, the gunner positions the aiming post by extending his left hand.
Top view of M102 105 mm Howitzer attached to truck
General Information - M102 Howitzer
French Garrison Gun (1650-1700). The gun is on a sloping wooden platform at the embrasure. Note the heavy bed on which the cheeks of the carriage rest and the built-in skid under the center of the rear axletree.
Gustavus abandoned the leather gun, however, in favor of a cast-iron 4-pounder and a 9-pounder demiculverin produced by his bright young artillery chief, Lennart Torstensson. The demiculverin was classed as the "feildpeece" par excellence, while the 4-pounder was so light (about 500 pounds) that two horses could pull it in the field.
Under the Swedish warrior Gustavus Adolphus, artillery began to take its true position on the field of battle. Gustavus saw the need for mobility, so he divorced anything heavier than a 12-pounder from his field artillery. His famous "leatheren" gun was so light that it could be drawn and served by two men. This gun was a wrought-copper tube screwed into a chambered brass breech, bound with four iron hoops. The copper tube was covered with layers of mastic, wrapped firmly with cords, then coated with an equalizing layer of plaster. A cover of leather, boiled and varnished, completed the gun. Naturally, the piece could withstand only a small charge, but it was highly mobile.