Their arrowheads and spearheads, axes, knives, and other tools and weapons were of copper obtained from Lake Superior mines, or of stone suitable for the purpose.
Musketeer wearing a bandolier.
Note how he pours the charge from one cylinder down the muzzle.
From De Gheyn.
There were several ways of carrying this ammunition. The powder was normally either in a flask or bandolier; the shot in a soft leather pouch. When going into action, a soldier often took his bullets from his pouch and put them in his mouth so he could spit them into the barrel of his gun and save time in loading.
A seventeenth century musketeer ready to fire his matchlock.
From Jacques de Gheyn, Maniement d’Armes, 1608.
The military supplies which the Pilgrims brought with them may be divided into three major categories: defensive armor, edged weapons, and projectile weapons. A completely armed man, especially in the first years, was usually equipped with one or more articles from each of the three groups, usually a helmet and corselet, a sword, and a musket.
Positions for the use of the sword
The Situation of the Cavalry man on the near side
The Cavalry man making point to the right
The Bayonet Exercise
A - Barrel Assembly
B - Rear Sight Assembly
C - Cover and Feed mechanism Assembly
D - Feed Pawl Assembly
E - Cocking Hand Assembly
F - Butt stock and Shoulder Assembly
G - Piston Assembly
H - Bolt Assembly
I - Slide Assembly
J - Operating Rod Assembly
K - Receiver Assembly
L - Trigger Mechanism Assembly
M - Hand Guard Assembly
N - Bipod Machine Gun
O - Gas Cylinder Assembly
The Romans, either alarmed by the progress of Hannibal, or becoming aware of the value of such allies as the Spaniards, now sent larger armies to their assistance, headed by their ablest generals.
The constantly smouldering match of the former rendered it a very dangerous weapon in the neighbourhood of cannon; the "snaphaunce", or "fusil", was fitted with a "fire-lock", in which a spark was struck from a flint.
Anelace (Also in French, alenas, alinlaz, analasse, anlace.) A broad knife or dagger worn at the girdle.
It was a well known weapon in he thirteenth century.
Doubtless on the coasts of Scandinavia and North Germany, the chief
home of these composite crossbows after the time of the Crusades, whalebone
was easily obtainable, whilst in other parts of the Continent, the pieces which
formed the heart of the bow, were made from the straightened horn of an
This ancient form of crossbow with a composite bow, survived in an
improved form in Scandinavia and in the north of Europe, as a weapon
of sport and war, till about 1460, or for nearly a hundred years after the
far superior crossbow with a thick steel bow and a windlass had been in use in
France, Spain and Italy. Some of these later weapons were made so strong
in the fifteenth century, that after the invention of the powerful cranequin
for bending steel bows, this apparatus was also employed for bending the
From MS. Gaston Phosbus. Fourteenth century449 visits
A troop of mounted crossbowmen, of special skill and courage, usually formed the bodyguard of the king, and attended him in battle. Mounted crossbowmen
were largely employed on the Continent in the fourteenth, and first half of the
fifteenth century, and these men were usually allowed one and sometimes even
two horses apiece, besides being supplied, when on the march, with carts to
carry their crossbows and quarrels
The kneeling figure is fitting his belt-claw to the string of his crossbow, preparatory to bending its bow.
From Manuscript No. 2813 in the National Library, Paris, reproduced by J. Quicherat in his ' History of Costume in France,' 1875.
Joannes Stradanus, born at Bruges 1536, died at Florence 1605, a Flemish historical painter who delighted in portraying all kinds of sport, such as shooting, hunting, fishing and coursing, which he did with wonderful skill and in most realistic fashion. This picture is reduced from ' Venationes Ferarum,' a work consisting of 105 large plates of sporting scenes, dated 1578. The hunters carry stonebows, and the rabbits are being driven from their burrows by smoke and fire. Purse nets and stop nets may also be seen in use.
The centre figure may be seen bending his crossbow with a windlass, with his foot in the stirrup of the weapon.
From Manuscript, Froissart's ' Chronicles.
The crossbowman is aiming at a target to the left of the picture.
From a catalogue of the Arsenal of the Emperor Maximilian I. (6. 1459, d. 1519).
Crossbowman approaching game by means of a stalkig horse
How a crossbowman should approach animals by means of a cart concealed with foliage.
They represent French soldiers at the defence of Rouen, 1419, shooting from behind the shelter of shields propped up in front of them.
Of this plate Valturius quaintly writes: ' When everything is cleared for navigation
before the charge is made upon the enemy, it is well that those who are about to engage the foe should first practise in port, and grow accustomed to turn the tiller in calm water, to get ready the iron grapples and hooked poles, and sharpen the axes and scythes at their ends. The soldiers should learn to stand firm upon the decks and keep their footing, so that what they learn in sham fight they may not shrink from in real action.
The centre figure is winding up his windlass crossbow behind the shelter of a shield.
From Manuscript, Froissarts ' Chronicles.'
The larger shields, which were carried before the knights (by their pages) when on the march, and which were propped up in front of them as a protection from arrows in a battle or a siege, were known as pavises or mantlets.
The soldiers carry windlass crossbows. One man is winding up his weapon ; the other is shooting, with his windlass laid on the ground at his feet.
Hunters with crossbows
Carry the point of the bayonet down until it is at the height of the knee, moving the point of the bayonet sufficiently to the right (left) to keep the opponent's attacks clear of the point threatened.
Tighten the grasp of the hands and swing the rifle to the front and downward, directing it at the head of the opponent, and immediately return to the position of club rifle by completing the swing of the rifle downward and to the rear.
The men may be permitted to wield the rifle left handed, that is on the left side of the body, left hand at the small of the stock. Many men will be able to use this method to advantage. It is also of value in case the left band is wounded.
Executed in the same manner as the thrust, except that the left foot is carried forward about twice its length. The left heel must always be in rear of the left knee. Guard is resumed immediately without command. Guard may also be resumed by advancing the right foot if for any reason it is desired to hold the ground gained in lunging
At the second command take the position of guard; at the same time throw the rifle smartly to the front, grasp the rifle with the left hand just below the lower band, fingers between the stock and gun sling, barrel turned slightly to the left, the right hand grasping the small of the stock about 6 inches in front of the right hip, elbows free from the body, bayonet point at the height of the chin.
Thrust the rifle quickly forward to the full length of the left arm, turning the barrel to the left, and direct the point of the bayonet at the point to be attacked, butt covering the right fore-arm. At the same time straighten the right leg vigorously and throw the weight of the body forward and on the left leg, the ball of the right foot always on the ground. Guard is resumed immediately without command.
Sometimes the sling is attached to a staff or truncheon, about three or four feet in length, wielded with both hands, and charged with a stone of no small magnitude. Those slings appear to have been chiefly used in besieging of cities, and on board of ships in engagements by sea. The following engraving represents a sling of this kind, from a drawing supposed to have been made by Matthew Paris, in a MS. at Bennet College, Cambridge.
From the Museum of Mitau in Courland
Fig. 7. Norwegian Sword. The pommel and cross-piece are of iron.
Figs. 8 to 11. From Livonian graves : the originals are in the British Museum. Fig. 10 is single-edged : its pommel and the chape of the scabbard are of bronze. Fig. 11 has its pommel and guard ornamented with silver
Fig. 1. Found in the Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Fairford. It measures upwards of 2 ft. 11 inches, and is one of the finest examples extant.
Fig. 2. In the Hon. Mr. Neville's collection : found in the Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Wilbraham, Cambridgeshire. Length of blade, 2 ft. 7 in. It retains the bronze mountings of the sheath, which have been gilt.
Fig. 3. Same collection and find • a specimen re-markable for the cross-piece at the hilt.
Fig. 4 Ancient-. Irish Sword of the same period : length, 30 inches. From Mr. Wakeman's paper in vol. iii. of Colleetanea Antigua.
Fig. 5. Danish sword with engraved runes : in the Copenhagen Museum.
Fig. 6. Danish : from the Annaler for Nordisk Oldkyndighed. Remarkable for the form of its cross-piece
Dogs may have been kept as pets, and may have helped in hunting. Meso-Indians developed many new hunting and fishing techniques. They used fishhooks, traps, and nets for catching fish and other small animals, and they used a new weapon called the atlatl (pronounced at′lat′l) to help kill their most important prey, deer.
An atlatl was made from a flattish, two-foot long piece of wood and was used as a spear-thrower. It had a hook, made of bone or antler, attached on one end and a hand grip carved on the other end. A stone, clay, or shell weight was sometimes attached toward the hooked end to increase the force of the throw, or perhaps only for decoration. A spear was rested on the atlatl with the end of the spear shaft inserted into the atlatl hook. The hunter held the atlatl grip and the middle of the spear in the same hand, then he hurled the spear from the atlatl. The atlatl acted as an extension of his arm, giving extra power and accuracy to the throw.
Hand Grenade No. 5, known as Mills’ Hand Grenade. Mills’ Hand Grenade No. 5 weighs about one and one-half pounds and is in constant and steady use at the front, being the best known of all grenades. It consists of an oval cast iron case, containing explosives and serrated to provide numerous missiles on detonation. In the center is a spring striking pin, kept back by a lever or handle, which, in its turn, is held in position by a safety pin.
There are three kinds of bombs: (1) percussion; (2) ignition;, and (3) mechanical. It is not possible to describe every bomb in use under these three headings, but the most typical are selected for description, although it does not follow that they are all in use at the present time, but will give a fairly good idea of what is required.
1. Hand Grenade No. 1.
2. Hand Grenade No. 2, formerly known as Mexican Hand Grenade.
3. Rifle grenade No. 3, formerly known as Hale’s Rifle Grenade.
Hand Grenade No. 1 consists of a brass case screwed on to a block of wood, to which is fixed a small cane handle about half way up the case. Outside it is a cast iron ring serrated into 16 parts. The upper end is covered by a moveable cap with a striker pin in the center. On the cap are the words “Remove,” “Travel,” and “Fire” in duplicate. These are marked in red and can be made to correspond with red pointers painted on case. To prepare a bomb, turn cap so that pointer is at “Remove,” take off cap, insert detonator in hole and turn it to the left until the spring on the flange is released and goes into position under the pin; replace cap and turn to “Travel,” which is a safety position. When the bomb is to be thrown, turn cap to “Fire” and then remove safety pin. This bomb explodes on impact, and to insure its falling on the head, streamers are attached. Care should be taken that streamers do not get entangled. The bomb must be thrown well into the air.
Hand Grenade No. 7—Grenade heavy friction pattern.
Hand Grenades Nos. 6 and 7 consist of metal cases filled with T.N.T and a composite explosive and are exactly alike, except that No. 7 contains shrapnel bullets or scrap iron, while No. 6 contains only explosive. At the top of each case is a place to fix the friction igniter, which is supplied separately. When these bombs are to be used, detonator fuse and igniter are put in and firmly fixed. Before throwing the becket on, head of igniter should be pulled smartly off.
Ball Hand Grenade.
The Ball Hand Grenade consists of a cast iron sphere, 3 inches in diameter, filled with ammonal and closed by a screwed steel plug which has attached to it a covered tube to take detonator in the center of grenade. It is also lighted by a Brock lighter.
Picture represents very clearly the half-armour worn by the Arquebusier and the weapon from which they took their name.
The military of China differs, as every thing else differs, from that of all other nations, in the nature of its establishment, its occupation, and its dress. They have two distinct armies, if they may be so called; the one composed entirely of Tartars, who are stationed in the several provinces on the Tartar frontier, and occupy all the garrison towns of the empire; the other composed of Chinese, who are parcelled out in the smaller towns and hamlets to keep the peace, by acting as constables, subordinate collectors of the taxes, guards to the granaries, and assisting in various ways the civil magistrate. Along the public roads, canals and rivers, are placed, at certain intervals, small square guard-houses, at which are stationed from six to twelve men, who are employed in settling disputes upon the rivers or roads, and also in conveying the public dispatches.
Like Miles Standish, some of the soldiers had swords at their sides, and all carried either flintlock or matchlock muskets so big and heavy that, before they could fire them off, they had to rest them upon supports stuck into the ground for the purpose.
(Fac-simile of early engraving.)
They are a pastoral people, and have the faults and virtues of their class. If they are hospitable, they are also indolent, and pass their time in gambling and smoking. As a rule, they content themselves with one or two wives, and are less jealous of their being seen by strangers than are other Mussulmen. They have a large number of slaves of both sexes, whom they treat humanely. They are excellent marksmen, and passionately fond of hunting. Brave under all circumstances, they take pleasure in "razzias," which they call "tchépaos." As a rule, these expeditions are undertaken by the Nherouis, the wildest and most thievish of the Belutchis.